Christian culture 基督教文化学刊

The Origins of the Strategy of Cultural Adaptation by the Society of Jesus: On the Formation of "Dōjuku"(Acolyte) in Francisco Xavier's Time

Author: LIU Hailing, Lecturer, Zhejiang University of Technology; Ph. D. Candidate, School of Humanities, Zhejiang University



This essay focuses on the origins of the strategy of cultural adaptation adopted by the Society of Jesus in Catholic mission history, by studying how local people worked as missionary assistants in Francisco Xavier’s time. Through a historical and horizontal analysis of the contents and features of missionary works by assistants, including Indian theological students, and Yojiro (or Anjiro, 弥次郎) and Ir. Lourenco(洛伦佐了斋)in Japan, the article explores the practical impact of Francisco Xavier in mission in India and Japan. As the use of local assistants progressed from a “passive use” to an “active training,” this inevitably helped bring about the emergence of the early “dōjuku” (Acolyte) practice, and provided essential experience for the institutionalization of this practice in the time of Valignano, as well as for Matteo Ricci’s missionary operation in China. 



Strategy of Cultural Adaptation, Localization of Church, Francisco Xavier, Dōjuku, Embryo


Full Text (International Version):

LIU Hailing SCN JSCC.pdf


Full Text (Simplified Chinese Version): 

LIU Hailing SCN JSCC.pdf